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1111. Fort Anderson Collection. April 14, 1865 can be considered the most ironic day in American history. It was a day of extremes, beginning with the ceremonies at Fort Sumter re-raising the same flag brought down by Major Robert Anderson four years prior to the day; and ending tragically in the assassination of Lincoln. Offered here is a superb collection of material related to the happier portion of the day: the ceremonies re-raising the flag over the ruins of Fort Sumter. Of considerable interest is a very rare imprint from that historic occasion, Programme of the Order of Exercise at the Re-Raising of the United States Flag, on Fort Sumter, Charleston, S.C., April 14, 1865 (Port Royal, S.C.: “Printed at ‘The New South’ Office”, [1865]) 4 pages, 8vo. Light horizontal folds, else extremely fine and very clean. A superb and highly desirable imprint, the program summarizes the “Order of Exercises” including the opening prayer by U.S. Army Chaplain, Matthias Harris “who made the prayer at the raising of the Flag, when Major Anderson removed his command from Fort Moultrie to Fort Sumter, December 27, 1860.” Following Harris’ prayer’s the Rev. R. S. Storrs read Psalms 126, 47, 98 and 20. Then came a “Reading of Major Anderson’s despatch [sic] to the government, dated steamship Baltic, off Sandy Hook, April 18, 1861, announcing the fall of Fort Sumter…” Then finally came the “Raising and planting upon the ruins of Fort Sumter, the same United States flag which floated over the battlements of the Fort during the rebel assault, April 14, 1861, by Brevet Major General Robert Anderson, U.S.A. As soon as the flag is raised a salute of one hundred guns will be fired from Fort Sumter, and a national salute from every fort and rebel battery that fired upon Fort Sumter…” Following the flag-raising, there was an address by Henry Ward Beecher as well as a closing prayer and benediction by Reverend Storrs. Offered together with a scarce and desirable signature of the man of the hour, Robert ANDERSON who signs on a small blue slip: “New York Apr 14, 1865 Robert Anderson Major Genl. by brevt.” Closely cut at bottom, lightly toned, else fine. Why Anderson would have added New York to the date is unknown and curious as he was in Charleston at the ceremonies that day. Also together with two photographs, one an excellent carte of Anderson by Brady with an Anthony, New York credit on verso as well as an excellent Anthony stereo view of the flag raising ceremony at Fort Sumter. Finally, the collection includes an unusual imprint, The Trip of the Steamer Oceanus to Fort Sumter and Charleston, S.C. Comprising the Incidents of the Excursion, the Appearance, at that time, of the City, an the entire Programme of Exercises of the Re-raising of the Flag over the ruins of Fort Sumter, April 14th, 1865. (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Union Steam Printing House, 1865) 172p. housed in blank wraps, pages uncut. Includes frontis and five inserted woodcut engravings. Pages bear marginal chips and tears not affecting text. Narrative of the voyage of the steamship Oceanus from New York to Charleston undertaken to attend the historic ceremonies – includes the text of Beecher’s oration at the fort, a complete list of the passengers, other miscellaneous items and documents contained in an appendix that include a physician’s report on a machinery room accident that required the amputation of an engineer’s foot. Not to miss a smidgen of historical significance, the authors chose to include an incident at the end of the day of April 14, during a ball given by General Hatch when “At an unexpectedly early hour, some of the guests of General Hatch returned to the boat. Upon being asked the reason, they replied that their hearts were not there, ‘that they had been disturbed throughout the evening, by certain strange premonitions and foreshadowings of evil.'” The authors commented “How little reckoned they of that cloud of cimmerian darkness, in which a more northern sun had but just gone down; of the scene transpiring in the nation’s Capital, at the very hour when the buoyant ones in the saloons of Rebel chiefs, were ‘chasing the glowing hours with flying feet?'” The work also includes lengthy descriptions of life in post-bellum Charleston, the attitudes of recently freed slaves and the ruined state of the town. A superb collection of material evoking the collective national emotion on what proved to be a roller-coaster of a day! Together, five (5) pieces. (Est. $2,000-


From the 1864 campaign…the COMPLETE SET in every color! 1112

1112. (Note: PLEASE look in the color section to see the entire set in every color issued!) This offering is the first complete set we have encountered for sale — six (6) of the Abraham Lincoln “Subscription” labels from the 1864 election, with every known color and denomination represented. While these might appear to be stamps, they are known in the philatelic (stamp) community as “cinderellas” and were not valid for postage. Rather, they represented amounts presumably contributed to the campaign via their purchase, the labels then affixed to correspondence. As detailed in Sherwood Springer’s Handbook of North American Cinderella Stamps, these delicate ephemeral items were definitely issued to support the Rail Splitter candidate in 1864. He likewise notes examples on covers that were franked and mailed. Printed in blue or black ink on orange (2-cent); green (3-cent); pink/rose (4-cent); white (5-cent); yellow (10-cent); deep blue (12-cent), the green 3-cent labels are most commonly found. Several of the denominations, however, are rarely encountered. To get all six in a single offering is next to impossible! All have minor/typical age issues, affixed to small cards as expected, the color remains quite vibrant, approx. 1 1/4 x 1 1/2″. These come from the collection of the last member of the Lincoln Topicals Collecting Association (Lincoln stamp collectors), the late Donald Benham. A fun, political group. (Est. $1,200-1,500)

The end of the war, the death of Lincoln…

a most eventful year at West Point. 1113

1113. An important volume of original manuscript special orders for the United States Military Academy at West Point for the year 1865 including orders pertaining to the death of Lincoln, the passing of his body en route to Albany, New York as well as the defeat of Lee, Johnston and other important occasions at the Academy. The book also lists class information including the class rankings for academic subjects, announcements of cadet discipline and other related matters giving the reader a vivid illustration of daily life at the academy. Manuscript bound letter book, approx 300 leaves, quarto, West Point, N.Y., January – December, 1865. Deaccessioned from the United States Military Academy Archives. Bound in red library cloth boards. Most of the orders are in an unknown secretarial hand and signed by Adjutant Edward C. Boynton and read, in part: (Special Orders No. 55, April 7, 1865): “In honor of the brilliant success of the Army of the Potomac in routing the Rebel Army of Northern Virginia, and more especially for the triumphant success of major General Sheridan yesterday afternoon over the Rebel General Lee, resulting in the capture of Ewell, Kershaw, many other General Officers, trains, guns, &c. including several thousand prisoners, the Superintendent directs that a National Salute be fired at 4.30 PM under the direction of the Commandant of Cadets.” Three days later, following the news of Lee’s Surrender at Appomattox, the commandant ordered that “A Salute of One Hundred guns will be fired from the ruins of Fort Putnam and One Hundred guns from Battery Knox, with the least possible delay in honor of the unconditional surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia, under the rebel General R. E. Lee to the U.S. Forces under the Command of Lieutenant General U.S. Grant.” (Special Orders, No. 57). One more celebration was held on May 19 when the news of “the surrender of the rebel General Johnston with all the forces under his command to General Sherman” occasioned the firing of 36 guns. (Special Orders, No. 71) Interestingly, at least in terms of life at the military academy, the assassination of Lincoln had little impact on the cadets until three days after his death. Special Orders No. 64, April 18, 1865 instruct the cadets and academy personnel: “In compliance with General Orders No. 66 dated, War Department, Adjutant General’s Office, Washington, April 16, 1865, Academic duty & all labor other than necessary police and guard, will be suspended to-morrow. At dawn of day 13 guns will be fired, and the National flags displayed at half staff. At intervals of 30 minutes between the rising & setting of the sun, a single gun will be fired; and at the close of the day, a National Salute of 36 guns. At 10 o’clock A. M., the Corps of Cadets and all the Detachments at this Post will be paraded in front of the Superintendent’s Quarters, at which time the orders of the War Department will be read. At 12 N[oon]. divine service will be held in the Chapel in the presence of the Officers, Professors and Corps of Cadets…” Although the cadets were far from a major city, where they could have had the opportunity to view Lincoln’s body, they were situated along the rail route from New York to Albany on April 25: “At 5 o’clock P.M. to-day, the Academic and Military Staff with the Corps of Cadets, Band and the engineer & Dragoon detachments, will embark from the South Wharf and proceed to Garrisons to pay the last tribute of respect to the remains of the late President of the United States. The national flags will be displayed at half-staff from 4 P. M. and upon the departure of the funeral train from Peekskill, minute guns will be fired from Battery Knox until the train has passed the Highlands…” (Special Orders No. 67). Following the end of the civil war, the academy became a regular stopping point for visiting war-heroes. On June 5, William T. Sherman visited the Academy warranting a 13 gun salute and a full review of the corps of cadets. Several days later the cadets were visited by none other than “…Lieutenant General U.S. Grant, commanding the Armies of the United States…” This occasioned “a Salute of 15 guns…[and] Lieutenant General Grant will review the troops of Cadets at 5 o’clock this afternoon.” Grant would visit the academy again in July meriting a similar reception. One visiting dignitary merits a bit more discussion here, Lafayette Sabine Foster, who as President pro tempore of the Senate, was third in line to the Presidency at the time of Lincoln’s assassination. As there was no provision for vice-presidential succession at the time, he was simply elevated to the post of President of the Senate and there would be no true vice-president until the election of Schuyler Colfax under U.S. Grant in 1868. However, because of his place in the line of succession, he was considered by some individuals to be Vice-President. Special Orders No. 136, dated October 6, 1865 state, “In honor of the arrival at this Post of Hon. Lafayette S. Foster Vice President of the United States, a salute of Seventeen (17) guns will be fired…at 4.10 P.M, the Academic & Military Staff will assemble at the quarters of the Superintendent, to pay their respects to the Vice-President, at 4.30 P.M., the Corps of Cadets will be reviewed by him on the general parade ground…” This constitutes a rare official acknowledgement of Foster’s ambiguous official status that is debated among historians of the presidency to this day. Other interesting highlights include a special order concerning the brief tenure of Marcus A. Reno as an instructor of cavalry tactics at the academy. On October 2, 1865: “Brevet Colonel M. A. Reno, Captain 1st Cavalry, is relived from duty at the Military Academy in compliance with Special Orders No. 579 dated War Department, Adjutant General’s Office., Washington, September 29, 1865, and will turn over to First Lieutenant A. S. Clarke, 1st Cavalry all duties pertaining to his position as an Assistant Instructor of Tactics…” According to Ronald H. Nichol’s biography on Reno, (In Custer’s Shadow: Major Marcus Reno) he was assigned as instructor in cavalry tactics at West Point in August, and quickly found it much to his distaste. After complaining about the position and the makeshift quarters provided his family, he secured an assignment in New Orleans and served as a judge advocate there before removing to California with the 1st Cavalry. Other highlights of this fine group include a printed copy of Special Orders No. 109 for July 30, 1865 announcing that: “The first Graduate of the U.S. Military Academy, General Joseph G. Swift, departed this life at his residence in Geneva, N.Y., on the 23d instant, at the advanced age of nearly 82. General Swift was born December 31, 1783, in Nantucket, Mass.; was graduated at the military Academy soon after its organization…” Swift was engaged in the construction of fortifications along the Atlantic coast. During the war of 1812 he served as Aide-de-Camp to Major General Pinckney later serving as chief engineer under General Wilkinson during the St. Lawrence campaign, seeing action at Chrystler’s Field before becoming Chief Engineer of forces in defense of New York. Following the war, he became Superintendent at West Point before he resigned in 1818…” The orders for July 3, 1865 give us a glimpse into how the academy celebrated American independence: “In honor of the 89th Anniversary of the Independence of the United States of America, reveille & tattoo tomorrow, will be played off by the Band from the East to south gate, terminating in Capt. A Federal Salute of 13 guns will be fired at sunrise, and a salute of 89 guns corresponding to the years of our existence as a Nation, will be fired at Meridian, from the Field Battery…All duties of instruction and the labor of the Post other than that required for the necessary police, will be suspended…At 9.30 A. M., the Corps of Cadets will be paraded in front of the Encampment…for the purpose of engaging in such ceremonies as the Commandant of Cadets may authorize. The exhibition of Fireworks will take place at 10 P.M. in front of the Superintendent’s quarters…” Other holidays, including Christmas and New Years Day, also occasioned the suspension of regular activities at the academy, as did a day of thanksgiving ordered by Andrew Johnson. Special Orders No. 159, for December 6, 1865 direct: “…tomorrow, the 7th instant, having been appointed by the President of the United States, as a day of public thanksgiving & prayer, all Academic duties and labor, except for the necessary police of the Post, will be suspended from Reveille until Retreat…Services appropriate to the occasion will be held in the Chapel…” Together, these special orders constitute a terrific historical record, not only highlighting some of the most seminal events in American history, but giving the reader a better sense of daily life at the academy where a good many of the generals and officers who fought on both sides in the Civil War attended. Most pages clean with occasional soiling and toning, else fine. (Est. $3,000-5,000) 1114

1114. LINCOLN, Abraham. Important A.L.S. “A. Lincoln” as President, 1p. 8vo. on Executive Mansion letterhead, Washington, Jan. 12, 1863 to Edwin Stanton urging the promotion of Carl Schurz and Julius Stahel, two critical political supporters in the officer corps, to the rank of major general and urging he give Schurz the command of an entire corps. Lincoln writes, in full: “Hon. Sec. of War Dear Sir, I intended proposing to you this morning, and forgot it, that Schurz and Stahl [sic] should both be Maj. Genls. Schurz to take [Franz] Sigel’s old corps, and Stahel to command Cavalry. They, together with Sigel, are our sincere friends; and while so much may seem rather large, any thing less is too small. I think it better be done. Yours truly A. Lincoln.”

A revealing letter by Lincoln, demonstrating the tremendous influence wielded by powerful political allies in the military, even as the reputation and fortunes of the “political generals” was in decline following the Union losses of 1862. In writing this letter, Lincoln was clearly anticipating resistance from Stanton who had shown resistance to these politically motivated appointments. Some in this class, including John A. Logan and Francis P. Blair proved able and had distinguished careers while others proved less than adequate. Lincoln, an astute politician, understood the real value of these appointments. These men represented key constituencies critical to assembling broad popular support for the war effort. Carl Schurz, Julius Stahel, together with Franz Siegel, August Von Steinwehr were the most prominent among the generals representing the wave of German immigrants fleeing social upheaval in the wake of the 1848 revolutions. These generals, because they raised regiments among their own countrymen, commanded fierce loyalty from their men, and in turn secured the German vote for Lincoln.

This appointment was particularly interesting in light of the very close relationship between Lincoln and Carl Schurz. The German-born Schurz (1829-1906) was a democratic revolutionary before coming to the United States in 1852 and was a gifted orator. In 1856 he settled in Wisconsin where he became involved in the fledgling Republican Party. In 1858 he stumped (in German) for Lincoln in Illinois increasing the future president’s profile among German voters. His oration “True Americanism”, delivered in Boston in 1859 helped erase any doubts of his loyalty to his adopted nation. At the 1860 Wigwam, Schurz headed the Wisconsin delegation and was on the committee that nominated Lincoln for president. His influence among the German immigrant community was crucial to securing Lincoln’s victory in certain states, and he stumped tirelessly for the ticket. Lincoln rewarded Schurz for his services with an appointment as ambassador to Spain, over the objections of Seward who was suspicious of Schurz’s revolutionary background. In 1862 Schurz returned to the United States and took a commission as brigadier general of volunteers commanding a division in John C. FrÈmont’s and later Franz Sigel’s corps. Like Schurz, the Hungarian-born Julius Stahel (1825-1912) threw in his lot with the revolution, resigning his officer’s commission in the Austrian army to join. Following the defeat of the revolution in Austria-Hungary in 1849, he fled abroad, living in Berlin and London before coming to New York in 1859. There, he became an influential editor of a German-language newspaper. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Stahel organized, with the help of Ludwig Blenker, the 8th New York Volunteer Infantry, the first regiment of German-Americans raised for the army. The 8th ably covered the chaotic Union retreat from First Bull Run, and for this Stahel received a brigadier general’s commission.

Lincoln’s direct and frank request to Stanton came in the wake of the inconclusive and bloody campaigns of 1862 and subsequent Republican losses in the mid-term elections that autumn. Lincoln was also writing to Stanton after being somewhat bullied by Schurz in a series of letters written to Lincoln in which he admonished him for placing the army in the hands of those of questionable political loyalty. On November 8, 1862 Schurz wrote to Lincoln blaming the recent electoral setbacks not on “your proclamations, nor to the financial policy of the Government, nor to a desire of the people to have peace at any price. I can speak openly, for you must know that I am your friend. The defeat of the Administration is the Administration’s own fault. It admitted its professed opponents to its counsels. It placed the Army, now a great power in this Republic, into the hands of its enemy’s. In all personal questions to be hostile to the party of the Government seemed to be a title to consideration. It forgot the great rule, that, if you are true to your friends, your friends will be true to you, and that you make your enemies stronger by placing them upon an equality with your friends. Is it surprising that the opponents of the Administration should have got into their hands the government of the principal states after they have had for so long a time the principal management of the war, the great business of the national government?” Schurz hailed the dismissal of McClellan, but this was not enough: “…the change of persons means little if it does not imply a change of system. Let us be commanded by generals whose heart is in the war, and only by such…If West-Point cannot do the business, let West-Point go down. Who cares? It is better, that a thousand generals should fall than that the Republic should be jeopardized a single moment.” (Schurz to Lincoln, Nov. 8, 1862, Abraham Lincoln Papers, Library of Congress) Lincoln replied on November 10, defending his appointments and observing that Schurz himself did not oppose the appointment of non-Republicans to civil and military offices, but admitted “It so happened that very few of our friends had a military education or were of the profession of arms…” (Basler, Collected Works, 493-5). A similar exchange of letters followed later in the month, this time Schurz additionally sought to accuse Lorenzo Thomas of passing intelligence to the enemy, a charge that Lincoln flatly denied and added “that if you can give any tangible evidence upon the subject, I will thank you to come to the city and do so.” (Lincoln to Schurz, Nov. 24, 1862, Lincoln Papers, LOC). Sigel accepted the invitation.

We do not know the substance of the interview, but Schurz did not directly appeal to Lincoln in writing for a promotion until two days after Lincoln had written Stanton requesting the promotion of Sigel and Stahel on January 12. On January 14, Schurz wrote: “To-day I went with Gen. Sigel to see Gen. Burnside, who fully agreed to it that I should command the Eleventh Corps and Gen. Stahel the Cavalry Reserve. Gen. Stahel also is very well satisfied with it. All concerned now agreeing upon that point the only thing that is wanted is, that you should be kind enough to issue an order placing me in command of the Corps and Gen. Stahel in command of the Cavalry-Reserve, consisting of the Cavalry now with the Grand Reserve Division and such regiments as will be attached to it. It is quite probable that we shall move in a very few days, and it is necessary that all these matters be definitively arranged before the movement commences so as to avoid difficulties and confusion while we are engaged in active operations…”

Lincoln approved the command for Schurz and around the same time it then became public knowledge that both Schurz and Stahel had been recommended for promotion to major general. This news raised the hackles of General Adolph Von Steinwehr who believed he was in line for command of XI Corps. On Jan. 20, 1863 he bluntly told General Franz Sigel “General Schurz is professedly without military knowledge or experience. He received his appointment from civil life; had never seen service before, nor made military art and science an object of study. I on the contrary, have been educated for the military profession, having graduated at the Military Academy of Brunswick, served nine years in the army, and have devoted much time and labor to military studies…” Siegel chose not to respond, and Von Steinwehr appealed to Lincoln directly. Sensing his promotion may be derailed by such complaints Schurz wrote to Lincoln on February 14 bolstering his claim and right to the promotion adding, “…in further consideration of the position I occupy in the country and my influence with a large class of citizens, which would undoubtedly be impaired by a letting down and might otherwise become useful to the public interest at a critical moment, — I would respectfully request you, not to strike off my name from the list of your nominations…”

On March 11, Schurz wrote again to Lincoln mentioning a visit with Charles Sumner who “…related to me a conversation he had had with you. From what he told me I had to conclude that I was dropped from the list of your nominations because otherwise it would have been necessary to promote Gens Stahel and Steinwehr also. I have no objection to the promotion of these two gentlemen, but I really do not see, permit me to say, why we should be inseparably bound together and placed on a level… Mr. Sumner tells me also that the Germans expressed to you different opinions on this matter. I know I have enemies among them; I would perhaps have none if I enjoyed the benefit of indifference and obscurity. There are some whose sensitiveness I have hurt; others whom I have refused to recommend for office; and still others who are of an envious disposition, hate everybody that rises above their heads and magnify one to belittle another. But should this quarrelsome spirit have an influence upon the action of this Government? Besides I feel as though I had become something of an American and not altogether dependent upon the endorsement of any class of foreign born people. Nobody will consider this claim on my part presumptuous who remembers, that the votes for Liberty I have made were by no means all German…”

In the end, Schurz’s fears were groundless, when on March 14, 1863, he and Stahel received commissions as major generals — Von Steinwehr did not. Interestingly, what may have held up the decision was not only Von Steinwehr’s complaints, but Schurz’s additional request for the promotion of Alexander Schimmelfennig on February 14. Charles Hubbard in Abraham Lincoln and His Contemporaries related a disagreement between Lincoln and Stanton over his promotion. Stanton, encountering Schimmelfennig’s name on a list of officers recommended for promotion, protested to Lincoln that there were more deserving candidates. Lincoln was insistent, adding “His name will make up for any difference there may be” and left Stanton repeating Schimmelfinnig’s name with some amusement. (Hubbard, p. 24; T. Harry Williams, Lincoln and His Generals, p. 11)

Schimmelfinnig himself never proved a great general, but the incident underscored Lincoln’s need for popular generals who could solidify his political support. Lincoln was wise enough not to fill the ranks with only political favorites, he clearly understood that he also needed experienced military men who could produce decisive victories and the majority of his commissions were awarded to such men. However, he also appreciated the necessity of appointing generals who could inspire popular support, and more importantly, inspire men to enlist in the ranks.

Minor partial fold separations at top and bottom repaired on verso with archival tissue, two vertical creases, else very fine. (Est. $30,000-40,000)

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